we don't have a special sharing folder in linux because i think we can share more easily using groups. create a group and add yourself and people you want to share stuff with to that group, and i think this is more secure than chmodding 777 a directory and its content.
from the terminal:
sudo addgroup sharing
sudo usermod -a -G sharing $(whoami)
in mate desktop, it's even more simpler to share stuff with people using windows if you install caja-share.